Long Multiplication Worksheets

This page includes Long Multiplication worksheets for students who have mastered the basic multiplication facts and are learning to multiply 2-, 3-, 4- and more digit numbers. Sometimes referred to as long multiplication or multi-digit multiplication, the questions on these worksheets require students to have mastered the multiplication facts from 0 to 9.

There are a variety of strategies for completing long multiplication including the classic paper and pencil methods, lattice multiplication (which we feature on this page), mental strategies, manipulative use, technology, and various other paper and pencil algorithms. Multi-Digit multiplication can be a frustrating experience for many students. Try to teach multi-digit multiplication using more than one strategy.

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Two-Digit Multiplication

Two-Digit multiplication is a natural place to start after students have mastered their multiplication facts. The concept of multiplying two-digit numbers requires a knowledge of place and place value, especially if students are to fully understand what they are accomplishing with the various strategies they use. A question such as 24 × 5 can be thought of as (20 + 4) × 5. Mentally, this becomes much easier as students multiply 20 by 5 then 4 by 5 and add the two products. A good way to build understanding of place value is with base ten blocks. These wonderful manipulatives also translate very well into paper and pencil and mental math strategies.

 Long Multiplication with Commas for Thousands Separators

 Long Multiplication with Spaces for Thousands Separators

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Three-Digit Multiplication

This is where you know if students understand the long multiplication strategy they are using. An extra digit can throw off some students but add an extra challenge to others. Always ensure that students are "ready" for worksheets like the ones below or both you and the student will be frustrated. These three-digit multiplication worksheets require a mastery of single-digit multiplication facts and a knowledge of a multi-digit multiplication strategy that will enable them to both understand the question and get the correct answer.

 Long Multiplication with Commas for Thousands Separators

 Long Multiplication with Spaces for Thousands Separators

Four-Digit Multiplication

Four-digit multiplication was invented in 350 B.C. as a way of punishing children who stole bread from the market. Just kidding! It's actually a great challenge for students who have experienced success with their multiplication facts and have a good handle on a long multiplication strategy. If this isn't the case, it might not be such a good idea to give students any of these worksheets to do until they've worked a little more at some easier stuff.

 Long Multiplication with Commas for Thousands Separators

 Long Multiplication with Spaces for Thousands Separators

Lattice Multiplication

Lattice, or sieve, multiplication is a great strategy for students to use to calculate long multiplication problems on pencil and paper. We've made the first step of preparing a lattice easy as the worksheets below have them pre-drawn. With a little practice, students can use graph paper or draw their own lattices freehand. The first factor is separated by place value along the top of the lattice, giving each place value its own column. The second factor is separated in the same way, but along the right side with one place value per row. The single digit column and row numbers are multiplied together and their product is written in the corresponding box, separating the tens and ones places on either side of the diagonal. Finally, the diagonal "rows" are summed and regrouped starting with the diagonal in the lower right hand corner which will only have a singl-digit in it. The answer keys we've provided should give you a good idea of how to accomplish lattice multiplication like a pro. Once students have a little practice, you might find that this is their preferred method for calculating the products of large numbers. This method is highly scalable, which means it is a straight-forward task to multiply a 10-digit by a 10-digit number, etc.




Distributive Property

Using the distributive property can help students mentally multiply whole numbers without relying on paper/pencil methods.

Multiplication on the Grid

For some students, a grid helps them to line up their numbers when completing long multiplication questions using the U.S. algorithm.

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